Sports Medicine

Sports Medicine

The Punahou Athletic Training staff provide first aid and health care to all Punahou students, specifically those participating in interscholastic athletics. Athletes who are competing for Punahou, but have sustained an injury in a situation unrelated to their Punahou team activities, will be responsible for their own medical care. The staff will assist with emergency care and treatment of non-athletes who sustain an injury at school. However, responsibility for rehabilitation will be that of the individual student and his/her family.

List of 3 items.

  • Services

    Injury Prevention
    • Monitor injury trends via collection and analysis of Punahou athletic injury data and recommend appropriate changes in team training to reduce injury risk
    • Select, apply and modify prophylactic and protective equipment and other custom devices for patients/clients to minimize the risk of injury or re-injury.
    Management of Athletic Injuries
    • Emergency Care
    • First Aid
    • Injury Evaluation
    • Referral
    • Practice and Competition Coverage
    Rehabilitation of Athletic Injuries
    • Design and implement therapeutic exercise program
    • Utilize therapeutic modalities in treatment plan
  • Standard of Care

    The health and welfare of student athletes is Punahou’s first concern. The Punahou Athletic Training Staff adheres to the NATA Code of Ethics and the Athletic Training Educational Competencies as established by the NATA. 
  • Objectives

    Athletic Training Room Staff are committed to:

    • Providing efficient and timely care of athletic injuries that are incurred by Punahou athletes during their competitive season
    • Enabling injured athletes to return safely to competition
    • Reducing the risk of athletic injury for our student-athletes
    • Educating student-athletes about athletic injuries so they are empowered to lead healthier, injury-free lives
    • Coordinating with the strength and conditioning program, the coaches, the athletic support staff, school administration, physicians and other healthcare providers to provide the best possible healing environment for our student athletes
    • Facilitating a safe return to school and sport for student athletes after a concussion by coordinating care between teachers, school administration, counselors, the health center, parents, coaches, and the student athlete

Knowledge Base

List of 12 items.

  • Concussions

  • Daily Nutrition for Performance and Training

    Optimal nutrition is important for each athlete's performance. Taking in the proper foods, fluid intake, and supplements will allow an athlete to compete at their full potential. With the  right information, an athlete can start to change their way of living in order to fuel their body for the best output. Proper nutrition not only helps with performance but contributes to endurance, fitness level, mental health, and overall wellness.
    Read More
  • Energy Drinks vs Sport Drinks

  • Ergonomics

    Ergonomics plays a huge role in injury prevention when working  from home. The use of proper body mechanics, technique, posture, and desk set up are all contributed to the practice of safe work practices. There are specific stretches and exercises that will benefit a student-athlete and faculty by preventing injuries from occurring. Two of the most common complaints are neck and back pain. In order to prevent injury or discomfort, you should incorporate regular stretching and strengthening of muscles during breaks. The ergonomics handout below gives tips on how a proper workplace should be set up and information on how to prevent common injuries. 
  • Fluid Intake

    Hydration is key for an athlete to reach their peak performance. Body weight is made up of 60% of water. During exercise fluids are lost and the fluids need to be replenished, if not, it can lead to dehydration. One way to monitor hydration, an athlete can weigh themselves before and after exercise. For every pound of body weight loss drink approximately three cups of water. Another way to monitor hydration is checking urine color. Urine similar to lemonade is a sign of hydration, rather than a dark yellow color indicating dehydration. Do not rely on thirst as an indicator of dehydration. Athletes typically get thirsty after they have already lost enough fluid to make them dehydrated. 
    Read More
  • Heat Related Illness

    Exercising and competing in high temperatures can be dangerous. Heat illness occurs when the body’s core temperature reaches an unsafe level. Sweating is the process our body uses to cool itself, but with high humidity and hot temperatures, athletes' bodies can have trouble maintaining a safe body temperature. This may lead to heat-related illnesses. Athletes who are not acclimated to hotter temperatures, unconditioned, or getting over illnesses are more likely to experience heat-related illnesses. 

    It is important that an athlete takes precaution to lower the incidence of heat-related illness. Precautions include replenishing any fluids and electrolytes that are lost during exercise, maintaining a healthy diet, and monitoring hydration levels. 

    Athletes and coaches should learn the warning signs and symptoms of heat illnesses in order to act quickly and give the appropriate care. Below explains the signs, symptoms, and the proper care for heat related illnesses.

    Heatstroke is the most severe form of heat illness. This illness usually occurs when there is poor ventilation on a hot and humid day. This can lead to shock, brain damage, or death if not treated immediately. 
    Signs and symptoms: 
    • Fever
    • Red skin
    • Small pupils
    • Rapid shallow breathing
    • Weak rapid pulse
    • Decreased sweating
    Proper care: 
    • Seek emergency medical care immediately
    • Move the athlete to a shaded or cool area
    • Elevate the legs
    • Remove or loosen clothing
    • Wrap the athlete in a wet cloth
    • Apply cold compress to the neck, armpits, and groin
    • Give the athlete an electrolyte drink or add one teaspoon of salt to a quart of water
    Heat exhaustion is the moderate form of heat illness. Heat exhaustion can lead to heat stroke if there is no immediate action. 
    Signs and Symptoms:
    • Nausea
    • Light-headed
    • Thirst 
    • Irrational Actions
    • Weak, slow pulse 
    • Dilated Pupils
    • Heavy Sweating 
    • Cool and clammy skin
    Proper Care:
    • Rest in a shaded area
    • Loosen or remove clothing 
    • Replenish the loss of electrolytes
    • Pour water over the athlete unless there is signs of being disoriented
    • Wrap a wet cloth around the athlete and position a fan toward him/her
    • Apply a cold compress (neck, armpits, or groin)
    • Continue to check the athlete temperature every few minutes until the body’s temperature is 100° F. Once it reaches 100° F, continue to check every 30 minutes for 3-4 hours to ensure that the temperature is stable.
    Heat cramps are the earliest sign of heat illness. Painful muscle spasms are due to the loss of salt in the body through perspiring. 
    Signs and Symptoms:
    • Painful muscle cramps (legs, arms, abdomen, back)
    • Heavy perspiration
    • Weakness 
    • Lightheaded
    Proper Care:
    • Rest in a shaded area
    • Replenish the loss of electrolytes
    • Pour water over the athlete unless there is signs of being disoriented
    • Wrap a wet cloth around the athlete and position a fan toward him/her
    • Apply a cold compress (neck, armpits, or groin)
    • Gently massage the cramped muscles
  • Mental Health Considerations

    Mental Health is an important issue that needs to be addressed on a regular basis. It is normal for an athlete to have their mental health affected. Depression and anxiety are the most common mental health diagnosis. Athletics can both increase and decrease unique stressors. Eating disorders are also a common health issue in sports. An athlete should seek self-help by speaking to their parents, an Athletic Trainer, or school counselor. It is important that Coaches ask athletes how they are doing, talk about mental health issues and normalizing them, provide education materials, and share resources. 

    Please visit SWELL in person or online for any concerns, questions, or support. 
    Read More
  • Muscle and Exercise Recovery

  • Muscle Building and Atrophy

  • Pre-Event and Post-Event Meals

    Pre-game meals should be eaten 3-4 hours before an event. Carbohydrates should be limited if an athlete eats within one to two hours before the event. Protein is a good source of food to regulate energy levels by slowing down carbohydrate absorption. Events in hot and humid climates should have an electrolyte replacement such as pretzels or sport drinks that contain sodium. 

    Depending on the time an athlete eats before the event can determine what kind of meal is recommended. For example, an athlete who eats an hour or less before an event can eat granola bars, bananas, pretzels, or dried mango. A meal two to three hours before an event might be oatmeal, fruit, bagel with peanut butter, or yogurt. Four hours before an event is the recommended time to eat a meal. At this time, an athlete could eat grilled chicken with rice and fruit, chicken pasta with vegetables, or turkey sandwich with carrots. 

    A post-game snack or meal should include carbohydrates to allow the body to replenish glycogen. This meal should be consumed within four to six hours after the event. Choose higher carbohydrate foods such as fruit and yogurt, pita and hummus, or a banana and peanut butter. Added protein can help with muscle growth and recovery.
  • Rehabilitation

  • Sleep Considerations

    Sleep is important to an athletes overall health, recovery, mental health, and performance. It allows the body to repair and restructure DNA, improves memories, regulate weight and metabolism, boost immune function, and decrease blood pressure. It is recommended that an athlete gets 7 to 10 hours of sleep for optimal performance and adequate recovery from training and injury. 

    Sleep can be related to the risk of injury and illnesses. A decrease in sleep has shown an increase in poor performance which can lead to injury. The body immune system can be suppressed and make it more likely to be at risk of an upper respiratory infection. 

    Endurance athletes are able to run a farther distance when they have a full night's sleep compared to when they are sleep deprived. Sprinters have shown improvement with their speed when they get the proper amount of sleep. It only takes one night's sleep to affect a time-trial performance. The reaction time, accuracy, and decision making needed in sports can be decreased when an athlete is deprived of sleep. By increasing sleep time by two hours, this will allow the body to fully recover and recharge in order to complete at peak performance. 

    Follow these tips to better your sleep routine:
    • Make the room cool and dark
    • Turn off Tvs and phones to heighten melatonin levels
    • Workout during the day and avoid any exercise at night
    • Avoid caffeinated drinks
    • Make a sleep schedule allowing 7-10 hours of sleep 
    • Take a 30 minute nap earlier in the day if recovery is needed from the previous night